Wells require a pump to extract water from underground sources. Centrifugal force pushes water from an underground source into your home. The style of pump best suited for a well is determined by your well's depth.
Related Blog: All About Submersible Pumps
Types of Well Pumps
The main types of well pumps and their ideal well depths are:
Shallow Well Pumps
A shallow pump is placed outside the well housing and is not submersible. These pumps are utilized when the well is less than 25-feet deep. A booster or tank can help increase PSI levels to provide better water pressure for the home.
Jet pumps operate from 0- to 110-feet in depth. Shallow jet nozzles can allow the pump to operate at 0- to 25-feet. Ejector assemblies are used for deeper wells. The convertible jet pump is not submersible and is ideal for fluctuating water tables.
Ejectors engage to collect water from a deeper depth.
Jet pumps are mounted above a well and use suction to draw water upward. Drive water is pushed through a narrow hole to increase the speed of water from the impeller. Vacuum suction will draw in additional water to increase the overall water pressure to the home.
Shallow well jet pumps operate in wells that are 25-feet deep or less. Deep well jet pumps operate in wells that are 25- to 110-feet deep.
Submersible pumps, or deep well pumps, can be used for wells that are over 90-feet deep. The submersible pump is fully submerged inside of the well to help draw water to the top of the well.
The bottom half of the pump is a sealed motor that connects to an above-ground power source.
Multiple impellers are used to push water up through the pipe into a storage tank. Regulators help route the water from the pump into the home's plumbing system.
Basic Well Pump Upkeep and Maintenance
Well pumps must be primed to work properly in a well. The priming process involves removing air from the water pump before usage. A "dry" pump, or one that has not been primed, can sustain damage due to the air in the system.
Submersible pumps go through the priming process once because they will operate fully submerged.
Jet pumps may need priming after a power outage or other incidents where air enters the pump.
Additional maintenance for wells include:
- Well casing inspection and overall maintenance
- Visual inspection of all deep well pumps
- Annual maintenance program
- Monitoring pump performance
- Monitoring gallons per minute
- Monitoring pumping levels
Deep well pump maintenance includes a flow test to determine the output of the system. The test will be able to determine if the pump is running properly. Flow tests can also check the control system and preserve tank to ensure proper operation.
Motor performance, pressure levels and electrical system tests will alert owners of any issues with the well or pump system.
Water tests should be performed to determine if bacteria and nitrates, as well as other contaminants, are entering the system.
Full system checks, by a professional, allow for fast repairs of minor problems. Well pumps that are running poorly and are not maintained properly may need to be replaced. A mechanical inspection will verify the integrity of the system and should be performed by a licensed or certified contractor.
Inspections can be performed at any time of the year, but it's often best to have the well pump inspected in the fall or winter. Summer is the season when most pumps are under extensive use. Fall or winter inspections help eliminate any potential issues pumps may have before heavy-usage months.
If you need help maintaining your pump or installing a new one, contact us today to speak to an expert.