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Electric Motors—The Different Types and Applications of Each

Mike Jeffries | May 24, 2021

A motor is a handy device that generates mechanical energy from electrical energy. Today, motors are used in both residential and industrial settings. However, the motor you choose will depend on your specific needs. 

For starters, the different types of motors in the market make the buying process tedious. You have to choose between AC motors, DC motors, and special purpose motors. 

Types of AC Motors

AC Induction Motor

An induction is the most common type of AC motor in the current market, also referred to as asynchronous. The AC Induction motor works at a momentum below its synchronous speed. Here, an electric current produces torque in the rotor. Induction motors rely on electromagnetic induction to convert energy from electrical to mechanical. 

The classification of asynchronous motors is based on the rotor type; squirrel cage or slip-ring. Induction motors are excellent for industries because of their load capacity. 

The construction of compressors, pumps, lifting gears, and conveyor systems are among its numerous applications. 

AC Synchronous Motor

This type of motor majorly depends on a 3-phase power supply. The stator generates the field current while the rotor depends on the field current for its rotation. The speed of rotation of the rotor is concurrent with the supplied current's frequency. In this motor, the momentum doesn't vary with the load. 

AC synchronous motors have numerous applications in robotics, process control, and automation. Most constant speed-driven equipment uses these motors.  

Types of DC Motors

Brushed DC Motor

In this motor, the stator brush arrangement determines the current flow. Its torque is produced from the DC power supply using electromagnets. They are cheap and highly efficient. 

High-starting torque machines like cranes, hoists, and lifts use brushed DC motors. They are also applicable for constant speed purposes like vacuum cleaners and conveyors. 

Brushless DC Motor

These motors achieve high performance while reducing their size compared to brushed DC motors. They operate using slip rings, commutators, or an embedded controller. 

Their efficiency, improved dynamic response, noiseless operation, and high-speed changes make them an excellent choice for most industries. Fixed load, varying load, and positioning depend on this type of motor. 

More Types of Motors

Servo Motors

These are motors joined with feedback sensors to aid in positioning, thus the key to robotics. They allow for precise control of angular position, acceleration, and velocity. Servo motors have high efficiency and accuracy, thus used in rotating components of machines. 

Its applications include the construction of toys, cars, airplanes, domestic electronics, etc. 

Stepper Motor

Right from the name, stepper motors operate in steps. It converts electrical energy to expansive discrete mechanical steps. As other motors move 180 degrees, stepper motors can make ten steps of 18 degrees each. 

In this case, it will require ten electrical pulses to complete the revolution. They are used in plotters, circuit fabrications, process control tools, medical scanners, fluid pumps, respirators, automatic digital camera focus, etc. 

Hysteresis Motor

In hysteresis motors, the stator and rotor magnetic fields are in opposite directions. Once the rotor is magnetized, you require a massive reverse magnetic field to overturn it. Hysteresis and eddy currents from the rotor produce the torque. 

Hysteresis motors can generate ripple-free torque until you attain the synchronous speed. They are used in the construction of sound players, audio recorders, etc. 

At Mader Electric, our team of experts is ready to help you with all your business and residential motor servicing needs. Contact us today with any questions or concerns you have about electric motors and our experts will be happy to help you discover the solutions you need.

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